The dictionary meaning of term “intelligence” is the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge.
Faculty theory of intelligence is one the oldest theory, according to this theory mind is made up of different faculties like reasoning, logic, memory, imagination and discrimination. These faculties are independent of each other and can be developed by rigorous mental exercises of the difficult subject-matter, the Unifactor Intelligence theory of Alfred Binet (1916) is about general intellectual ability which is made up of several discrete abilities which include.
Ø To reason well with abstract material
Ø To comprehend well
Ø To have a clear direction of thoughts
Ø To relate thinking with the attainment of a desirable end and
Ø To be self- critical
All these abilities combined together is called general mental ability. Thus, intelligence is a single but complex mental process which can be measured by different kind of materials designed for the purpose.
An English psychologist, Charles Spearman developed the Two factor theory, intellectual abilities consist of two factors, general ability known as ‘G’ factors and specific abilities known as ‘S’ factors.
G Factors are:
Ø Universal inborn ability
Ø General mental energy
Ø Constant, i.e., it remains the same in all the individuals and does not change with time.
Ø The amount of G differs from person to person depending on his genes.
Ø Used in every life activity.
Ø Greater the amount of G in and individual, larger is the chance of his success in life.
S factors are:
Ø It is learnt and hence acquired in the environment.
Ø It varies from activity to activity in the same individual.
Ø The amount of S also differs from person to person due to his accessibility to learning situations.
Ø ‘S’ factors are related to the specific activity. A low correlation between two or more functions or activities indicates the presence of ‘S’ factor involved in the activity. A person can be expert only in one or few activities because of the specific factors involved in the activity.
Howard Gardener proposed the Theory of Multiple Intelligence; he identified eight distinct intelligences due to which individual’s differ in their intelligence they are:
Visual Spatial intelligence- The ability to think in terms of physical space as architects drives and sailors do.
Bodily – Kinesthetic intelligence - Keen sense of body awareness, these individuals communicate well through body language like a dancer or a surgeon.
Musical intelligence - They show sensitivity to rhythm and sound, they have many study better with music in the background.
Interpersonal intelligence - Understanding, interacting with others, these individuals have many friends, empathy for others and are street smart.
Intrapersonal intelligence - Understanding one’s own interests, goals, they are in tune with their inner feelings; they have wisdom, intuition and motivation as well as strong will confidence and opinions.
Linguistic intelligence - Using words effectively, these individuals have highly developed auditory skills, they like reading, playing word games, writing poetry and stories.
Naturalistic intelligence - They observe the laws in the natural world these individuals are interested in growing plants, taking care of animals or studying animal’s or plants like veterinarians, zookeepers, biologists.
Logical intelligence - Mathematical Intelligence reasoning, calculating and to think conceptually, abstractly they need to learn and form concepts.
Gifted and talented individuals who by virtue of outstanding abilities are an asset to the country and society they need to contribute according to their superior intelligence.
Introspect and identify the intelligences in you…………..
Prof. (Dr.) Rekha Mahajan