Programmed instruction has been defined as a method of giving individualized instruction, in which the student is active and proceeds at his own pace and is provided with immediate knowledge of result. The physical presence is not essential in this strategy. This technique of instruction was basically developed by B.F. Skinner. It is based on the principle of reinforcement and self-learning.
Definition of Programmed Instruction: Programmed instruction is the change in the response of the behavior brought about through the use of material built into carefully organized sequential system. It refers to utilization of teaching machines, programmed text and computer programming, in order to achieve prescribed learning or behavioral modification objectives.
Characteristics of Programmed Instruction:
1. It is a part of educational technology in the sense that programmed material can be presented with the help of machines or computers.
2. It is a new strategy of teaching and learning where learner learns without the help of the teacher.
3. It is a technique for the modification of learner’s behavior by confirming the right response immediately.
4. In this technique the learner learns at his own speed.
Types of Programmed Instruction
2. Branching or Intrinsic Programming
Linear or Extrinsic Programming: Linear Programming is based on Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Theory of learning where contingencies of reinforcement are properly arranged which shapes the behavior of an organism in a desirable manner. This programmed instruction was first systematically prepared by B.F. Skinner of Harvard University.
Branching or Intrinsic Programming: This programmed instruction was developed by Norman Crowder. The main characteristics of this model is that it has been developed according to the needs, interests and attitudes of learners. Branching or Intrinsic Programming is also known as Scrambled Programme.