Friday, 14 September 2018

Programmed Instruction

Programmed instruction has been defined as a method of giving individualized instruction, in which the student is active and proceeds at his own pace and is provided with immediate knowledge of result. The physical presence is not essential in this strategy. This technique of instruction was basically developed by B.F. Skinner. It is based on the principle of reinforcement and self-learning.
Definition of Programmed Instruction: Programmed instruction is the change in the response of the behavior brought about through the use of material built into carefully organized sequential system. It refers to utilization of teaching machines, programmed text and computer programming, in order to achieve prescribed learning or behavioral modification objectives.
Characteristics of Programmed Instruction:
1.       It is a part of educational technology in the sense that programmed material can be presented with the help of machines or computers.
2.       It is a new strategy of teaching and learning where learner learns without the help of the teacher.
3.       It is a technique for the modification of learner’s behavior by confirming the right response immediately.
4.       In this technique the learner learns at his own speed.
Types of Programmed Instruction
2.       Branching or Intrinsic Programming
Linear or Extrinsic Programming: Linear Programming is based on Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Theory of learning where contingencies of reinforcement are properly arranged which shapes the behavior of an organism in a desirable manner. This programmed instruction was first systematically prepared by B.F. Skinner of Harvard University.
Branching or Intrinsic Programming: This programmed instruction was developed by Norman Crowder. The main characteristics of this model is that it has been developed according to the needs, interests and attitudes of learners. Branching or Intrinsic Programming is also known as Scrambled Programme.

Thursday, 13 September 2018

Survival of ‘Gigabit’ Cities in light of Internet Divide

The Internet has undoubtedly accelerated humankind's improvement to unprecedented levels; however, human imagination knows no bounds!! Just imagine a scenario where we could speed it up much more!! Presently, the innovation depends vigorously on availability; however foundation impediments are additionally constraining the speed of this advancement. Although internet has reached to almost every area but till date high speed internet is still a distant dream for many. The outcome of this is an enhancement of the social separation, which frustrates monetary advancement. Urban communities can't utilize the devices that can enable it to achieve keen city limit.
There is no reasonable and only city, as long as we have an advanced separation keeping us down.
In the event that systems are quick, solid and broadly accessible, organizations create all the more great applications to keep running on those systems. This paces up monetary improvement as more new businesses motivate chances to make city applications to explore, gain information for the urban communities and change their natives' lives to improve things.
Gigabit urban communities emerge to give the fundamental foundation. In the United States, US Ignite, a charitable association financed by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and the National Science Foundation, withhold the responsibility of uniting the partners and "touching off" advancement of nearby networks.
Every one of these US Ignite people group gets access to a low latency ultra fast coordinate with locavore (neighbourhood cloud) registering and capacity abilities that help exceptionally intelligent and immersive encounters impractical on the present business Internet. US Ignite has effectively helped with working more than 100 next generation applications in the course of recent years. The foundation, inactivity and speed of these gigabit urban areas are conveying what started as Internet2 twenty years back. Colleges and learning associations saw that rapid association was important to facilitate advancement. Internet2 is working intimately with US Ignite and the Sustainable Ecosystem of Smart Cities Project to encourage sending and selection of gigabit applications. Presently there are 12 urban communities cooperating with US light.
LinkNYC in New York City has selected a business answer for connect the computerized isolate. LinkNYC was discussed broadly a year ago at the Smart City Expo World Congress 2015. The LinkNYC stage, created by Sidewalk Labs, has hotspots everywhere throughout the city utilizing the old NYC telephone stall framework. The remote system was introduced by NetX.
Minerva Tantoco, when beginning on her new activity as the primary NYC CTO, turned out to be extremely mindful that crossing over the advanced partition was major in the change of NY into a really just and evenhanded city, and in addition basic for the reasonable improvement of New York as a keen city. "With the fast development of new innovation we should be careful not to propagate the computerized partition", says Tantoco, "Rather we should utilize this chance to close the hole."
Furthermore, gigabit complimentary wireless internet together with network endeavours will reaffirm New York City as a centre point for ability pulling in more organizations and subsidizing, giving space, instruments and discourse for financial advancement. This product arrangement is proving awesome for this city and the technocrats expect it to be valuable likewise for other cities around the world!!.

Wednesday, 12 September 2018

Mediation Awareness Drive

Mediation as a method of dispute resolution is not new to India; in fact it is an integral part of Indian culture. It has been in practice from the Mahabharata period to village panchayats resolving issues through mediation. In mediation, two or more people come together to try to work out a resolution to their dispute. A neutral third person, called the mediator, is there to help them along. Therefore, disputes are resolved through mutual settlements rather than approaching the courts.
Unfortunately, the biggest challenge mediation faces in India is that people are unaware of it as a dispute resolution process or they misunderstand the manner in which mediation works. Various awareness campaigns and drives have been conducted over the years in order promote mediation. Still the lack of awareness about it is rampant amongst Indians.

In order to create and spread awareness, JIMS Legal Aid Society conducted a mediation drive in Village Tugalpur, Greater Noida on 31st August’ 2018. More than 40 student volunteers participated in the drive to impart knowledge about mediation in the village. The Drive was headed by faculty co-ordinator Ms. Neha Sharma and student co-ordinators Mr. Kamshad and Mr. Puneet Kumar Arya.

The volunteers were asked to meet at a rendezvous point and were explained how to interact with people and what knowledge to impart with them. They were given a survey which required them to take down the name, phone number, address and pending case (if any) of the people they interacted with. They were also given pamphlets to be distributed among the general public. The students interacted with more than 200 people to spread awareness. Students worked in a team of 3-4 people and Ms. Lavannia Pillai was declared as the best volunteer.

Teams after explaining the meaning and advantage of mediations to the general public asked them if they have any case pending which could be sent for mediation. Public was not so forthcoming with their court problems but still various teams were able to find around 20 pending cases eligible for mediation. Students distributed pamphlets which had information regarding mediation and phone number of the JIMS Legal Aid Society in case any help is required. Mediation in India especially is very important as the courts are already overburdened with cases and mediation is a way to dispute resolution with further burdening the courts of the country.

The drive was in lieu of initiative taken up by Indian Mediation Week- 2018 (pan-India mediation awareness event backed by the Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India and Supreme Court Mediation and Conciliation Project Committee -MCPC) to spread awareness of mediation as an alternate dispute resolution.

Suljhao, Magar Pyar Se.

Monday, 10 September 2018

Workshop on Mindfulness in the Classroom

JIE organized a Workshop on Mindfulness in the Classroom on 6th September, 2018 for B.Ed. students as the practical component of Course code 155 –Understanding the Self. Ms. Aishwarya Laxmi Singh conducted this workshop. The workshop was focused on mindfulness which is about being aware of one’s own experiences. It brings us closer to difficulties but without becoming caught in our reactions to difficulties. It is a gentle way of showing who we are. Owing to the importance of mindfulness for a teacher, the workshop was carried out for following objectives:
  1.      To understand one’s own body and mind
  2.      To create a stress free work environment in schools’
  3.      To have a better decision making power
  4.      To be aware of our senses and situations taking place around us.
  5.       To be an effective and mature, sensible or wise teacher.
In order to achieve these objectives, Ms. Aishwarya explained the importance of Yoga in daily life. She demonstrated number of Asanas viz. Surya Namashkar, Shava Asana, Tadasana, Paschimottanasana etc. 

While practicing these Asans, she explained its benefits and precautionary measures to be carried out during any Asana.

Wednesday, 5 September 2018


Isidore Auguste Marie Francois Xavier Comte was born in Montellier of Southern France in January 1, 1798 and died in 1857. He was the first thinker who realized the need for a distinct science of human society. He is regarded as the father of sociology. He is regarded as the father not because of his significant contributions to the subject but because of creating sociology as a science of society or science of human behaviour. Comte first gave the name “Social Physics” to the science invented by him but later he coined the word “Sociology a hybrid term compounded of Latin and Greek words to describe the new science
Auguste Comte, a volatile Frenchman, philosopher, moralist and sociologist, traditionally regarded as the father of sociology. He coined the term sociology and bee father of sociology. He tried to create a new science of society, which would not only explain the past of mankind but also predict its future course. Auguste Comate was born in France the year 1798. He invented a new discipline which he called at first social physics and changed it to sociology thereafter. "Auguste Comte may be considered as first and foremost, sociologist of human and social unity" so writes the French sociologist Raymond Aron. Important works are
(1) Positive Philosophy (1830-42).
(2) Systems of positive polity (1851 -54)
(3) Religion of Humanity (1856).
His contribution to sociology can be divided into four categories. They are namely:-
(1) Classification and ordering of social sciences.
(2) The nature, method and scope of sociology.
(3) The law of three stages.
(4) The plan for social reconstruction.
(5) Positivism.
Auguste Comte was the first person to proclaim Law of Three stages, which became the corner stone of his thought. Of course, this famous law had been borrowed from R. J. Turgot, Y. B.Vico and Saint-Simon. The law states that human thought has undergone three separate stages in its evolution and development. According to him human thought as well as social progress pass through three important stages. These three stages are the universal law of human progress. These three stages are common in case of the development of human knowledge as well as social evolution. Human individual is a staunch believer during childhood, then becomes a critical metaphysician in adolescence and becomes a natural Philosopher during manhood. A similar case of development takes place in case of human society. Law of Three Stages not only talks about the progressive transformation of society but also explain the transformation in minds of the people. The evolution of human mind goes hand in hand with a typical form of organisation of society. The period of growth and development in society is known as:
(1) Theological or Fictitious stage.
(2) Metaphysical' or Abstract stage.
(3) Positive or Scientific stage.
Comte stated that each succeeding stage is superior to the earlier stage.
Theological or Fictitious Stage:
During the primitive stage, the early man believed that all phenomena of nature are the creation of the divine or supernatural. The primitive man and children do not have the scientific outlook, therefore it is characterised by unscientific outlook. They failed to discover the natural causes of various phenomena and hence attributed them to supernatural or divine power. For example, primitive men saw God everywhere in nature. They supposed that excess or deficiency of rain due to Godly wrath; such a casual explanation would be in terms of theological or fictitious explanation. The theological stage of thinking may be divided into three sub-stages such as
a) Fetishism.
b) Polytheism.
c) Monotheism.
a) Fetishism was the primary stage of theological stage of thinking. During this period primitive people believed that there is a living spirit in the nonliving objects. This is otherwise known as animism. People worshipped inanimate objects like tress, stones, a piece of wood, etc. These objects are considered as Fetish.
b) Polytheism means believing in many Gods. Primitive people believed that different Gods control different natural forces. Each God had some definite function and his scope and area of action was determined. For example, God of water, God of rain and God of fire, God of air, etc.
c) Monotheism is the last and the most developed form of theological thinking. Monotheism means believing in one God or God in one.
Metaphysical or Abstract stage: -
Metaphysical stage is an extension of theological stage. During this period, reason and rationality was growing. Reason replaced imagination. People tried to believe that God is an abstract being. Soul is the spark of divine power i.e. inform of abstract forces. It is believed that an abstract power or force guides and determines the events in the world. Metaphysical thinking discards belief in concrete God. The nature of enquiry was legal and rational in nature. For example; Classical Hindu Indian society where the principle of transmigration of soul, the conception of rebirth, notions of pursuant has were largely governed by metaphysical uphill.
Positive or Scientific Stage:
This positive stage is also known a scientific stage. The dawn of 19th century marked the beginning of this stage. It is characterised by scientific knowledge. In this stage, human mind gave up the taken for granted approach. At this stage, human mind tried to establish cause and affect relationship. Scientific knowledge is based on facts. Facts are collected by observation and classification of phenomena.
Positivism is a purely intellectual way of looking at the world. Positivism emphasises on observation and classification of data and facts. One can observe uniformities or laws about natural as well as social phenomena. Positivistic thinking is best suited to the need of industrial society.
Contributions of Comte to the Development of Sociology as a Science:
1. Comte gave to ‘sociology’ its name and laid its foundation so that it could develop into an independent and a separate science.
2. Comte’s insistence on positive approach, objectivity and scientific attitude contributed to the progress of social sciences in general.
3. Comte, through his “Law of Three Stages” clearly established the close association between intellectual evolution and social progress.
4. Comte’s classification of sciences drives home the fact that sociology depends heavily on the achievements of other sciences. The ‘interdisciplinary approach’ of the modern times is in tune with the Comtean view.
5. Comte gave maximum importance to the scientific method. He criticised the attitude of the armchair social philosophers and stressed the need to follow the method of science.
6. Comte divided the study of sociology into two broad areas:”social statics” and “social dynam­ics”. Present day sociologists have retained them in the form of’ social structure and function” and ”social change and progress’.
7. Comte had argued that sociology was not just a “pure” science, but an “applied” science also. He believed that sociology should help to solve the problems of society. This insistence on the practical aspect of sociology led to the development of various applied fields of sociology such as “social work”, “social welfare”, etc.
8. Comte also contributed to the development of theoretical sociology.
9. Comte upheld the ‘moral order’ in the society. The importance which he attached to morality highly impressed the later writers such as Arnold Toynbee and Pitirim A. Sorokin.
10. Comte’s famous books (i)’Positive Philosophy’ [in 6 volumes] and, (ii) “Positive Polity’ [in 4 volumes] are a memorable contributions to the development of sociological literature.
By:Dr Richa Srivastava
     Assistant Professor
     Law Departments

Friday, 31 August 2018

Challenges of teaching History in Indian School and the role of local history

During teaching history at school and college level for several years, I observed few important believes of students regarding history teaching learning , the most important was that history is a very boring subject, history is not related to our real life there is no utility  of history in their real world ,history merely transmits historical information and is too centered on the text which is required to be memorized for examination.

The content of the text books are unconnected to daily realities and are viewed as providing unnecessary details about the past. There is a perception that not many desirable job options are open to students specializing in the history .Text books are seen as the major source of knowledge this forecloses any possibility of innovation by an active participation of the learners.

The two key factors in the learning process are frequently missing from history and social studies instruction--DISCOVERY and INVOLVEMENT. Stated otherwise, the traditional teacher teaches and the student remains the passive occupant of the classroom.
The student, their associates, and their community--their entire known world--are excluded from the usual secondary school history curriculum. History to the student, therefore, becomes a remote and unrelated subject focusing primarily on the deeds of political figures, heads of governments, and military leaders.

As I have history teaching learning experience at school and college level. I believe this understanding of the context and role enhances my awareness, knowledge and sensitivity to many of the challenges, decision and issues encountered as history teacher at different level will assisted me in coming to conclusion that itis important for the development of concepts in children as well as the application of School knowledge in real life that the formal school knowledge is linked with community knowledge. This increases the relevance of education as well as the quality of learning. working outside the classroom and using authentic historic artifacts and locations will  help pupils feel closer to historic times, understanding the subject more tangibly, and will increase their engagement in learning through enquiry based learning.
 Local history will provide children with an opportunity to work like young historians and develop a real understanding of the nature of the subject as a process of enquiry. So children will have to investigate, and sometimes discover, relevant source material for  themselves. The future history teachers to acquire the competency to understand the learner with their social, cultural and political contexts construct his/ her own knowledge as well as encourage children to construct knowledge. Make learning a joyful and participatory activity. Organize learner centered, activity based, participatory learning experiences.
A local history investigation can involve the whole local community. Parents, grandparents and neighbors can provide resources such as old photographs, newspapers and personal reminiscences for children to study. At the end of the project they can be invited into school to see your children’s work. In this way community do feel stakeholder of student’s development.

So in above discussion we tried to understand the major challenges of history teaching and how by adding local history to the history curriculum can provide solutions to many challenges of teaching history.

Thursday, 30 August 2018

Career vs. Job

Career vs. Job
Both the terms are often used to mean the same but there is a difference between having a job and having a career.
A job by definition is a compensated position of normal employment but career means building on experience and advancing job skills and knowledge. It can take years of hard work to build a career.
One of my favourite quotes that keep me motivated was said by Mike Wallace: “If you don’t wake up in the morning excited to pick up where you left your work yesterday, you haven’t found your calling yet.”
Following points shows the difference between a job and career:-
·         Job is short term but career is long term.
·         Job has low career growth but career has a professional growth.
·         Doing job is to collect Money whereas pursue career is to collect Experience
·          Monday is tiring for job holders but it is Energetic for career holders.
·         In job, everyone looking for a new job but in career everyone looking to move up the ladder.
A person usually holds several jobs in their career. It is usually easier to change jobs in the same field of work that define ones career. However, switching careers is more complicated and may require the person to start at the bottom of the ladder in the new career.
Regardless, if you are currently working a job or building a career, you have to enjoy what you do
Find the job or career that you enjoy. Both can be equally rewarding depending on your personal situation and feelings. Find the work you enjoy. To some, a job can be tiresome, routine and not motivating, but to others it can be rewarding, educational and fun. The same goes for a career.
Remember that not everyone who has a career is satisfied, but it what’s you put into it that can make all the difference.

Assistant Professor
BBA Department