Thursday, 18 October 2018

Memory Level to Reflective Level of Learning


Teaching affects learning directly and indirectly both. If we disregard the self- efforts of learners, learning and its extent will depend on the level of teaching of the teacher. Generally, educators have determined three levels of teaching and a teacher select these levels according to the ability and mental level of the students. These level can be classifies in three parts i.e. MLT( Memory level of teaching), ULT (Understanding level of teaching), RLT (Reflective level of teaching).It must be keep in mind that one level of teaching is selected at a time. When level of teaching completes and the teacher receive feedback by the process of evaluation may process to next level. Determination of level depends upon factors like cognitive and academic level of students, nature of content and skill of teacher to use various skills and strategies.
MLT is a level concerned with the mere reproduction of learnt material by student through recognition and recall. The model of MLT introduced by Herbert. To improve memory level learning. A teacher must ensure that presented material should be meaningful and interesting, should be present systematically, appropriate feedback must be given, recall and rehearsal of learnt knowledge should be done at short intervals.Successful accomplishment of memory level of teaching is the assumption of ULT.
Understanding level of teaching the teacher develop the mental capacity of the students in such a manner that the students can now understand the concept and apply laws and principals in a confident manner. Their potentials developed by this level of teaching enable them to solve the problems themselves. Suggestions to improve ULT a teacher must ensure students should not be brought to the understanding level without passing the memory level of teaching.Students should be brought to different stages of teaching from exploration to recitation. Teacher should take initiative himself to solve the problem of an individual child. The teacher should have complete command over the subject. The teacher must focus to raise the aspiration level of student. The teacher must prepare comprehensive question to evaluate the understanding of the student.
RLT is a highest level of teachingwhich start after understanding level of teaching. This level of teaching tends todevelop independent thinking and ability to solve real life problems by taking critical judgement techniques. To improve level of RLT a teacher should motivate the child to reach at the solution of the problem. Teacher must provide appropriate resources and environment to express them freely. The hypothesis which is a tentative solution of the problem should be formulated by the student and tested by various means of analysis. Thus, a teacher is accountable for the overall development of the child and schools are the place of learning not teaching. A learning will become more meaningful if teaching is design systematically start from initial level to highest level to develop higher order of thinking among students.

Wednesday, 17 October 2018

Environmental Protection Through Energy Legislation in India


Recently IPCC (INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE) released its Assessment Report which is primarily focused on the damage suffered by the countries due climate change disaster. In which its data shows that India has suffered the loss of 79 billion dollar which refers to its weak policy and preparedness for dealing with climate change disaster. The report also conveys an alarming sign for India as its data says India will be more globally warm in upcoming years which can lead to more natural disaster resulting in to catastrophe. It means that India should start preparing its global warming and emission policies by focusing on climate resilient agriculture and Eco friendly fuel emission policy. Entire world is grappling with effect of Climate Change which has adversely affected our environment including flora and fauna. One of the major challenges in way of environmental protection is how to achieve sustainable management of energy. As burning of fossil fuel (energy) contribute to climate change which adds high rate of carbon emission in the atmosphere. In India more than 80% of energy requirement is supplied through fossil fuel (non-conventional source) of energy. For developing countries like India protection of environment and energy access is major challenge due to growing population and rapid economic growth which ask for uncompromising need for energy. India has plethora of environmental legislation for protection of the environment which is still not complete unless it push our energy legislation towards sustainable clean energy source. In December 2015 Paris agreement was drafted which based on the principle of common but differentiated responsibility and on 22 April 2016 it is open for ratification which promises that every country have to use clean and green energy.  India with ambition to achieve task clean and green energy has also signed and submitted its INDC (intended national  determined contribution) to UNFCCC which contains energy legislation and policy to achieve clean and green energy to reduce carbon emissions. This is the apt time for India  to focus on  how energy legislation in India attempts to protect environment and how Paris agreement promises can be achieved through these legislation as India. As India is still dependent on OPEC(organization of petroleum exporting countries) for its 70% energy need. The other thing which has to be focused that whether energy legislation supports environmental laws to protect environment. To fulfill the promise of Paris Agreement and to protect environment in order to provide clean and healthy environment to the citizens of India, all depends on how energy legislation can solve issue of climate change and meets energy requirement of billion people which is matter of great challenge for present and future. As India has taken several steps such as it is coming with its BHARAT VI emission norms for vehicular pollution. It has also taken initiative of International solar alliance to shift its dependency from fossil fuel to solar energy for clean emission. The above discussed method is the only remedy left for India if it really wants to become safe, secure, healthy and prosperous powerful nation  in future, which is real dream of every Indian.

Monday, 15 October 2018

Professionalism: What should be and What shouldn’t be


The word ‘Professionalism’ actually looks very common and easy which is clearly explained by its two components; Professional and Ism. The first word says its domain (Professional) while the second (Ism) depicts its nature, which combines to form as a practice of professionals. Therefore it should be understood as the practice and activities carried out by professionals of any occupation or profession.
But in modern and highly competitive society, we are losing the importance and actual meaning of this comprehensive word. It is among the most misinterpreted word in the field of workplace as employees interpret in their own words with respect to their requirements, status and inter-personal relationship with others.
What should be the interpretation of this word; subjective or objective? I guess most of the people would opt objectivity as their answer. If it is so, then yes you are right!!!
Professionalism is universal set of standards and acceptable behavioral pattern. Its implementation and application should not be affected by the area in which you are working, the organization for which you working, colleagues with whom you are supposed to work with and most importantly the objective which is leading you forward. Often professionals go beyond their limits of unacceptable behavior in the name of professionalism, personal grudges and their own professional growth. Talking practically, one’s professional growth is quintessential requirement, but getting growth by abolishing all set limits of acceptable behavior is not at all Professionalism.
It is true that no two colleagues will have same line of opinion, same track of working pattern and same understanding of the things. In this case, Professionalism stands for presenting your views, opinions, working pattern in a manner that speaks about its worth. It doesn’t stand for letting the opposite side down with the means of your expressed thoughts and views. It is only about accepting the things (which are undoubtedly correct) which do not lie on your line of thinking. Professionalism sticks with the ethics of workplace which itself explains what you should do and what you shouldn’t. Thus,
 Try to be a true professional, if not for others, then at least for your own ethical code of conduct.

Saturday, 13 October 2018

ADULTERY: NO MORE AN OFFENCE BUT REMAINS A GROUND OF DIVORCE


The Supreme Court in its unanimous judgment of Full Bench titled asJoseph Shine Vs. Union of India WP (Criminal) No. 194 of 2017 has held that Section 497 IPC is unconstitutional as it violates the fundamental right of citizens whereby adultery should not be treated as an offence, Further Supreme Court has declared that Section 198 CrPC which deals with the procedure for filing a complaint in relation to the offence of adultery also stands as unconstitutional on the basis that when the substantive provision goes, the procedural provision also needs to be repealed from the statute book.
By this Judgment Supreme Court has overruled its earlier Judgment in the case of Yusuf Abdul Aziz Versus State of Bombay AIR 1954 SC 321, Sowmithri Vishnu Versus Union of India and Others AIR 1985 SC 1618,  V. Revathi v. Union of Indiaand others,(1988) 2 SCC 72and any other relevant judgment on the said aspect.
In the case ofYusuf Abdul Aziz Versus State of Bombay AIR 1954 SC 321, the question arose whether Section 497 contravened Articles 14 and 15 of the Constitution of India.The Constitution Bench of this Court took the view that since Section 497 was a special provision for the benefit of women, and Article 15(3) of the Constitution protects the same.
In Sowmithri Vishnu v. Union of India &Anr.AIR 1985 SC 1618., a three-judge bench of this Court had observed that the challenge to the validity of section 497 IPChad no legal basis to be held unconstitutional as it is the man who is the “seducer‟, and not the woman.
Further In V. Revathi v. Union of Indiaand others,(1988) 2 SCC 72 the Court  analysed the provision and held that the said section neither permits the husband of the offending wife to prosecute his wife nor does the law permit the wife to prosecute the offending husband for being disloyal to her. Thus it punishes the third person who is a man who intrudes in their marital relationship.
But now the Supreme Court in Joseph Shine Versus Union of IndiaWP (Criminal) No. 194 of 2017 has given the following grounds for repealing section 497 IPC and Section 198 Cr.PC,from the statute book
i. Under Section 497, it is only the male-counterpart who is punishable for the offence of adultery. The woman who is equally guilty with the adulterous male, is not punishable, as offender or even as an “abettor‟.  The adulterous woman is excluded solely on the basis of gender, and cannot be prosecuted for adultery as such the said provision is against the principle of equality as given under the Constitution of India 1950.
ii. The law as given under section 497 IPC only gives the right to prosecute to the husband of the adulterous wife whereas no such right is given by law to thewife of the adulterous man
iii. Section 497 I.P.C. read with Section 198(2) of the Cr.P.C. only gives power to  the aggrieved husband, of a married wife who has entered into the adulterous relationship to initiate proceedings against the person who has entered in their relationship for the offence of adultery. But the said section does not provide any remedy to the said husband, if the adulterous relationship between a man and a married woman, takes place with his consent and connivance.
iv. Section 497 IPC does not apply where a married man engaged in sexual intercourse with an unmarried or divorced woman,
v. The offence of adultery does not come under the definition of crime and in this SC observed that that if it is treated as a crime, there would be immense intrusion into the extreme privacy of the matrimonial sphere and further, there is no public element involved in the said offence  and rightly holds that it is better to be left as a ground for divorce.
vi If adultery be treated as Crime it will violate the two aspects of Article 21 of the Constitution, namely, dignity and privacy of parties to the marriage.
vii. Article 15 (3) is to do affirmative act thereby to uplift women and empower them in socio-economic spheres. A legislation which takes away the rights of women to prosecute cannot be termed as beneficial legislation‟. 
From the aforesaid anomalies and inconsistencies in Section 497 as stated above by the Supreme Court in its judgment, would render the provisions 497 IPC and 198 Cr.PC liable to be struck down on the ground of it being arbitrary and discriminatory.
In my view Supreme Court has rightly upheld that criminal prosecution for the offence may be justified only in those cases where there is involvement of public element in the offence, such as offences against State security, and the like. These are public wrongs where the victim is not the individual, but the community as a whole and the State must follow the least possible approach in respect of the criminalization of offences, thereby respect the autonomy or the privacy of the individual to make his/her personal choices. Further,the right to live with dignity includes the right not to be subjected to public criticism and punishment by the State except where it is absolutely necessary. In order to determine what conduct requires State interference through criminal prosecution, the State must consider whether the civil remedy will serve the purpose. In the case of Adultery, civil remedy is available in the form of Divorce to the aggrieved party is sufficient as such there is no need for criminal prosecution for the offence of Adultery, hence, after 158 years of the enactment of IPC, Section 497 and its procedural section i.e. 498 CrPC  are repealed from the law thereby it is no more an offence but only a ground of divorce available to the aggrieved party to the marriage.

Friday, 12 October 2018

EFFECTIVENESS OF LAWS PROHIBITING SEX SELECTIVE ABORTIONS IN CURBING FEMALE FOETICIDE IN INDIA


Indian society is one of the societies in the world where there are more number of male than female population. The long standing tradition of son preference is still in practice and it is one of the reasons for the lesser number of female in the country. The birth of the girl child has never been welcome and she has been considered as a burden due to various factors. She is considered as a calamity and rejected as an unwanted person. She is denied of the basic rights in the society, which started before her birth from the four walls of the family.
In India, there is an indication of son preference in religion, culture and society. Even the blessings reflects discriminatory attitude towards girl child. The evils of female foeticide and infanticide are not new to the Indian society. It has been practice from decades. The root cause of the problems started with the patriarchal society and the institution such as dowry and the religious views that gave preference to the male rather than the female. There is a pre-conceived notion that the family lines runs through the male as the female child get married and went to her husband family and become the part of husband family.
Another main reason for this practice is the system of hypergamy, where the women must marry into a social group above their own. Among the upper caste it was impossible. It was thought that the rule of hypergamy could make the girl remain unmarried, thus girl in this group were killed and theboys married females from sub caste slightly lower than their own. In nineteenth century, it was indicated that a large group of village in Rajasthan and Gujarat, comprising of several hundred upper caste households, where no female child had been allowed to survive for many generations.
Social, religious and financial pressure in India, have led to the preference of male over the female child. The bias towards female also relates to the fact that sons are considered to be the one who provides social security at the old age of the parents. He is the one who performed all the religious ritual at the time of funeral of the parents. Even our religious views also contributed a prejudice towards the women. It is believed that the man, who does not beget a son, cannot attain“moksha” (redemption). Due to all these above reasons female child were not welcome to the family and she is killed as soon as her birth.Parents felt reluctant to give birth to a female child. It is considered that if it is a girl child, then they have to spend money for education as well for her marriage. A huge dowry is one if the main factors that made the parent to considered the girl child as a financial burden. But, if it is a boy, there is no need to pay dowry on his marriage, instead they will get dowry on his marriage. On the other hand, son will stay with them till they die and it is like getting insurance for their old age.
In an age where female have made progress in the entire field and has been walking on par with that of the male, there are people who still accord a lower status to the women. In Indian societies,while the childless woman is considered as an incomplete woman and the one who cannot give birth to a male child is also considered as a partial incomplete. On the other hand, the one who gave birth to a male child enjoy a higher status. It is unfortunate that even in 21st century where lots of developments have taken place in education, science and technology, the position of the girls is not enhanced but it is deteriorating. Parents still prefer boy child and they can go to any extent to get aboy child.
In the earlier days, when the scientific technologies were not advanced and it was impossible to determine the sex of the child, the killing of the unwanted girl child was done after her birth. Various practices such as poisoning the baby milk or by suffocating the infant or letting her choke on the husk-or simply by crushing her skull under the charpoy. But with the advanced of the medical science,sophisticated technique can now be used or rather misused, to get rid of her birth. Through the ultrasound scans, and the amniocentesis, the sex of the fetus can be determined during the pregnancy of the woman and the fetus is aborted if found to be female.
The truth is that the techniques which has been developed to diagnose the condition of the fetus in case of any deformities and genetic anomalies, medically termed as “amniocentesis”, has been primarily used for the purposed of determining the sex of the fetus and consequently termination of the female fetus. The discrimination against the female child started from the time of conception and she is considered as unwanted child, depriving of her to come in this world. The technology has given the easiest way to get rid of the female child and it is increasingly used especially in the male oriented society.
The old age practice of female infanticide that is being practiced from the beginning of the society got replaced by the female  feticide after the advent of the Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques. The practice of female feticide started since 1970 and early 80’s especially in Punjab and Haryana. Slogans like, “Boy or a girl”, “Spend 500 now and save 5 lakhs then”, flooded the entire Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.
Realizing to the alarming situation, where the dignity and rights of the girl child has been violated before her birth, women activist took up steps to stop this evil practice. Government too, realizing the grave misused of the technology, attempt to prevent the abuse of the Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques, only for medical purpose. In India, Maharashtra was the first state to enact legislation to regulate the used of the Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques in 1988.
For the above reason, Parliament enacted legislation under the name of Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misused) Act, 1994. The Act got amended as Pre Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act, 1994, in the year2002 and came into force in 2003. The Act was introduced with the object of banning sex selection and prohibition of artificial insemination.The Act has also made selective sex abortion and the used of the techniques for determining the sex of the fetus as a criminal offence under the law. The Act was amended with the conformity of the direction given by the Supreme Court in the CHEAT case. The scope of the Act was expanded for proper implementation and to tackle the short coming that exist in the previous Act.
The Act specifically prohibits the use of the Pre-Natal Diagnostic Technique for the purpose of determining the sex of the fetus and directed the appropriate authority to monitor the proper implementation of the Act. In spite of the legislation preventing the abused of the technologies, illegal practice, are being carried out so as to select the sex of the fetus.
As a result, there is increasing distortion in the sex ratio and it is one of the main reasons for the change in the male- female ratio. Through the intervention of the activist, Supreme Court, have already compel all to the State government to initiate action against the misused of the ultrasound machines, clinics and hospital that encouraged the practice of female foeticide.
The Indian Medical Association too, has called for action against the doctors who are involved in sex selection procedures. The Act mandates that any persons conducting ultrasonography or any other Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques must maintain proper records. It also requires the filling of a written form, duly signed by the pregnant woman, as to why she has sought to diagnose.
The legislation also allows the termination of the pregnancy on the failure of contraceptive. The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971, which allows the termination of the pregnancy, has been misinterpreted and the termination of the pregnancy is conducted for sex selection of the fetus. The Medical Termination of the Pregnancy has legalized the abortion on certain conditions but it does not permit sex determination of the foetus and selective sex abortion. It is pointed out that, thepregnant woman cannot avoid giving explanation in order to avail of abortion. She cannot simply say that it is an unwanted pregnancy. She is required to furnished explanation that fit the reasonable grounds for the termination of the pregnancy, as listed out in the Act. Usually people give the excuse of family planning to terminate the pregnancy.
 It is a huge challenge for the government to punish the violation of the Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act, 1994. The offence under the Act, took place within the four well and due to the lack of the evidence, the culprit went Scot free. There is lack of evidence for the conduct of sex determination of the fetus and the information for the sex of the fetus is provided to the couple in some other form of indication such as in the form of sign.
The provision of the Act that requires the registration of the diagnostic center has failed. Many centres, especially mobile units are owned by the doctors not trained in the respective field. It is argue that the government have been supporting in the continuation of such illegal practice. As, both the doctor and the couple are the beneficiary in this practice, there is no complainant for the illegal practice. Many clinics fail to maintain records for the use of ultrasound machine and other Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques.
Though the Act provides deterrent punishment for the violation of the provision of the Act, it has hardly played any role in controlling the problem. The conviction rate under the Act is relatively low. Even the medical practitioners are reluctant in giving evidence against each other. Effective implementation is required along with proper monitoring system, in order to regulate the used of the techniques along with the co-operation of the registered medical practitioner.
At this juncture, the researcher has made an attempt to examine the effectiveness of laws prohibiting sex selective abortions and how far India is able to curb the practice of female foeticide. Along with this it also deals with the issues and the perspectives relating to the effectiveness of the law. An attempt has also been made to examine those factors that are contributing to the misused of the technologies. It also tries to find out the remedies for the problems arising out of the selective sex abortion and its impact on the society.

Thursday, 11 October 2018

Relation between Vedas on Modern Science


Vedas, as considered in modern academia worldwide and also in our country as just a folk tradition and in some part of the world they are still regarded as the highest datum of science and spirituality blended together. Specially in European countries since the dawn of quantum physics, these sacred books of the Hindu religion and culture were taken up very seriously as the superlative degree scientific literature which involved mathematics, physics, chemistry, biochemistry, metallurgy, medicine, herbal sciences, aeronautical science, geology, sociology, economics, philosophy and many other subjects in vast expanse in their subsidiary commentaries compiled by the knower of the Vedas called the Rishis.

Originally Veda itself arises from the Sanskrit root word 'vid' which means 'knowing' and hence that is a significance that the Vedas were cognized through the higher realm and dimensions of the human intellect through the activation of the pineal gland in brain, as explained by the latest biophysics scientists in west. Therefore the knowledge of the Vedas is ever known as eternal or 'Apaurusheya' which means not a human creation, rather exists eternally.

Vedas are the product of the direct cognitive realization of human Self and thus is considered as the blueprint of the cosmos and creation. The core subject of the Vedas is therefore the Soul or the Self at cosmic and individual levels. The world or cosmos is considered as the apparently transformed reflection of this Self known as Brahmm and the world is thus considered as not real rather apparently real just as a wave in the ocean is temporarily real and later on it gets dissolved in ocean and becomes the ocean itself. Similarly this world or cosmos is also an apparent transformation of the transcendental consciousness the Brahmm which can be compared to the ocean and the wave can be compared to the world or cosmos. Strikingly the same analogous theory now the western academic backgrounds have come up in their recent research that the universe purely psychic and non-existent for the reason that it is an apparent appearance and not a real appearance. All the researches in the hyper dimensional physics are turning to the same Vedic background now.

The fact in Vedic commentaries that, the cosmic and individual states, both are considered qualitatively same and quantitatively different and therefore the studies of cosmology and psychology are one and the same in Vedic science i.e.Cosmology at microcosmic level at cosmic level while psychology at microcosmic level at individual level. This is not the same in modern science today and this is the reason that till date modern science is unable to solve the core problems of human brain and the cosmology as they consider these two separate. This is the reason why still human behavior is just a riddle and a puzzle for them for the very fact that they are still unable to correlate the oneness of human state with the cosmos that both are just the seas the drop of the ocean is equally same as that of the entire ocean.

I personally believe that if such a correlated studies ever start up and being taken seriously then most of the crucial human problems of the present civilization can be solved at hand.

Wednesday, 10 October 2018

Climate Resilient Agriculture in India


Climate change has affected the lives and foods of the world. It has changed the agricultural pattern of farming and has also raised the question of food security. WHO report has revealed millions of hunger deaths and malnutrition across the globe in the past decade. This pattern of hunger deaths and malnourishment is only going to worsen in the times to come due to the onslaught of nature fury.  To face this challenge, developed countries have increased their research on climate resilient-smart agriculture which gives primacy to high yielding varieties of seeds and transgenic to fight future challenge of food security for their counties. India is no safer from the threat of climate change. Thus, it is imperative for us to shift towards climate resilient smart agriculture to support India’s future food security concerns.
India adopted the BT Cotton technique in the last decade, which has benefited farmers at large. More recently, BT Brinjal is the new entrant into the BT Indian market. Efforts are underway to create transgenic of food items with high nutritional value to feed the teeming millions. India has adopted some of the latest techniques developed by Israel in the area of irrigation which includes drop irrigation and sprinkler irrigation. This has led to not only better utilization of scarce water resources but also increase in productivity of the farm produce. Government is focusing on making the best use of Artificial intelligence in the field of agriculture. Use of sensors to gather real time data on the growth of crops, pest attack, nutritional content of the soil etc; along with radars and IoT is on the rise in the field of agriculture. This is how smart agriculture landscape is going to be. There is also a greater focus on use of organic inputs in place of chemically produced pesticides and insecticides. Use of organic materials help in not only retaining the productivity of soil but also in ensuring higher nutritional content to the hungry hundreds.
These changes in the agricultural ecosystem would cover India’s future agricultural practice with respect to climate change and satisfy hunger of fastest growing population in the world. At present, India’s agricultural governance is suffering from criticism of HYV seeds and modern ethical question of transgenics which has affected life of poor farmers, and raised the question of seed sovereignty over traditional varieties or imported high yielding varieties with confusion that what should be given preference. The most important question that needs to be addressed at this juncture is how Indian agricultural research and farmers are going to adopt climate resilient smart agriculture in times of acute climate change pattern to achieve millennium development and sustainable development goals and centralize its role in reducing world hunger because of its seasonal and geographical advantages.