Friday, 16 February 2018


Transgender is not a new section of the society. They are present in the world from times immemorial. Transgender community mainly comprises of Hijras, Eunuchs, Kothis, Aravanis, Jogappas, Shiv-Shakthis etc., the existence of Eunuchs can be traced back to 9th century BC. It is a Greek word meaning there by “Keeper of the bed" .In Indian context scriptures like Vedas (1500 BC - 500 BC), Manu Smriti (200 BC - 200 AD), Mahabhaya (200 BC), and Patanjali's work on Sanskrit grammar recognized three genders.  The status of transgender was not discriminatory from the very beginning; rather they had a respected position in medieval India especially in the Mughal Period. The societal position of the Transgender was started to decline during the British Rule. Though, initially they were granted protections and benefits by some Indian states. However, in the second half of the 19th century, the British colonial administration vigorously sought to criminalize the hijra community and denied them the civil rights. 
Subsequently, the benefits such as the provision of land, rights of food and smaller amount of money from agricultural households in exact area were ultimately removed through British legislation because the land was not inherited through blood relations. In post independent era the people of this community were discriminated and victimized vehemently.After a long span of time on 15 April, 2014 the Supreme Court of India passed a landmark ruling recognizing transsexuals as a third gender in the land mark judgment of NALSA Vs. Union Of India, (Writ Petition No. 400 of 2012 with Writ Petition No. 604 of 2013) and upholding their rights to equality (Article 14), non-discrimination (Article 15), expression (Article 19(1)(a) and autonomy (Article 21). There is a vivid discussion of international law and domestic legislations of various countries in the judgment, it also sheds lights on evidences showing actual discrimination against transsexuals in Indian society and strongly highlights the idea of human rights.
At the international level United Nations has been instrumental in advocating the protection and promotion of rights of sexual minorities, including transgender persons. Article 6 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights(UDHR), 1948 and Article 16 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966 (ICCPR) recognize that every human being has the inherent right to live and this right shall be protected by law and that no one shall be arbitrarily denied of that right. Everyone shall have a right to recognition, everywhere as a person before the law. Article 17 of the ICCPR states that no one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honour and reputation and that everyone has the right to protection of law against such interference or attacks.
International Commission of Jurists and the International Service for Human Rights on behalf of a coalition of human rights organizations, took a project to develop a set of international legal principles on the application of international law to human rights violations based on sexual orientation and sexual identity to bring greater clarity and coherence to State’s human rights obligations. A distinguished group of human rights experts has drafted, developed, discussed and reformed the principles in a meeting held at Gadjah Mada University in Yogyakarta, Indonesia from 6 to 9 November, 2006, which is unanimously adopted the Yogyakarta Principles on the application of International Human Rights Law in relation to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity. Yogyakarta Principles address a broad range of human rights standards and their application to issues of sexual orientation gender identity.
In the light of this, the introduction of The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill, 2016 by the Minister for Social Justice and Empowerment, Mr. Thaawarchand Gehlot in Lok Sabha on August 2, 2016 would be a landmark step in elimination of discrimination against Transgender community. It is pertinent to note that the upper house (Rajya Sabha) has already passed the bill. The legislation is modelled on the private members’ Bill moved by Rajya Sabha MP Tiruchi Siva and passed by the Upper House on April 24, 2015.. The importance of a private member bill can be understood from the impact they make on the government and public at large. Any Member of Parliament who is not a minister is a private member and he or she can submit a legislative proposal for enacting as a law.
In the above mentioned bill a transgender person is defined as, one who is   neither wholly female or male;  a combination of female and male; or  neither female nor male.  Such a person’s gender does not match the gender assigned at birth, and includes trans-men and trans-women, persons with intersex variations and gender-queers. The Bill prohibits the discrimination against a transgender person, including denial of service or unfair treatment in relation to, education; employment; healthcare; access to, or enjoyment of goods, facilities, opportunities available to the public; right to movement; right to reside, rent, own or otherwise occupy property; opportunity to hold public or private office; and access to a government or private establishment in whose care or custody a transgender person is.
The bill guarantees the right of residence, it ensures every transgender person shall have a right to reside and be included in his household. If the immediate family is unable to care for the transgender person, the person may be placed in a rehabilitation centre, on the orders of a competent court. Moreover, it addresses the issue of employment; it says no government or private entity can discriminate against a transgender person in employment matters, including recruitment, promotion, etc. If the entity has more than 100 persons, it is required to designate a person to be a complaint officer to deal with complaints in relation to the act.
 In addition to this, it ensures the right to education, as per the bill educational institutions funded or recognized by the government shall provide inclusive education, sports and recreational facilities for transgender persons, without discrimination. It also ensures the aspect of health care; it states that government shall take steps to provide health facilities to transgender persons including separate HIV surveillance centers, sex reassignment surgeries, etc. The government shall review medical curriculum to address health issues of transgender persons, and provide comprehensive medical insurance schemes for them.
This bill stipulates some criteria for the identification of transgender, the Certificate of identity for a transgender person must be issued for identification. For obtaining the same a transgender person may make an application to the District Magistrate for a certificate of identity, indicating the gender as ‘transgender’. The District Magistrate will issue such certificate based on the recommendations of a District Screening Committee. The Committee will comprise of: (i) the Chief Medical Officer; (ii) District Social Welfare Officer; (iii) a psychologist or psychiatrist; (iv) a representative of the transgender community; and (v) an officer of the relevant government. Additionally, the bill states that the relevant government will take measures to ensure the full inclusion and participation of transgender persons in society. It must also take steps for their rescue and rehabilitation, vocational training and self-employment, create schemes that are transgender sensitive, and promote their participation in cultural activities.
The said bill has penal provisions for better implementation. The Bill recognizes the following offences, begging, forced or bonded labour (excluding compulsory government service for public purposes);  denial of use of a public place;  denial of residence in household, village, etc.; (iv) physical, sexual, verbal, emotional and economic abuse.
 Apart from that, the bill advocates the establishment of National Council for Transgender persons (NCT),this would be an advisory body  to advise central government on the formulation and monitoring of policies, legislation and projects with respect to transgender persons.  This council will consists of  Union Minister for Social Justice (Chairperson);  Minister of State for Social Justice (Vice- Chairperson);  Secretary of the Ministry of Social Justice;  one representative from ministries including Health, Home Affairs, Minority Affairs, Housing and Poverty Alleviation, Human Resources Development, etc. Other members include representatives of the NITI Aayog, National Human Rights Commission, and National Commission for Women. State governments will also be represented. The Council will also consist of five members from the transgender community and five experts from non-governmental organizations.
With all the progressive provisions in the bill there are various shortcomings in the bill which must not be ignored and needs to be addressed with intellectual discourse and debate. First of all, the definition of the transgender was not at par with the precedents laid down by the Supreme Court as under the current definition the usage of the phrases like “”transgender person” has been categorized as— (a) neither wholly female nor wholly male; or (b) a combination of female or male; or (c) neither female nor male. This by itself is both “inappropriate and derogatory”.
Secondly, the crucial issues affecting the large transgender population in India such as infliction of violence by families, police, lack of availability of a complaint mechanism etc. has not been incorporated in the bill. Thirdly, an important issue which has been ignored is the exclusion of transgender communities—each with its own set of beliefs, practices etc. as opposed to recognition of only a transgender individual under the bill. At last, the bill has to strike a fine balance with hugely controversial Section 377 of the IPC, 1860 that criminalizes homosexuality. Hence it can be said that though this bill is a welcoming step taken by government but must be not be passed as a weak law, rather reconsidered and the necessary sensitive issues must be incorporated. 

Ashish Saraswat

How to overcome weak passwords

The importance of setting strong passwords is hammered into us every week. We visit websites which have registration forms that tell you how secure your chosen password is. We hear about it on the news. We see it in emails we get every few months reminding us to update our passwords. So, you'd have thought by now, that most people use somewhat strong passwords, right? Unfortunately that's just not the case, and it's quite likely that insecure passwords are some of the largest vulnerabilities that exists in your organisation.
Let's take a look at Adobe's data breach. It was a widely reported security disaster, whereby ~150 million encrypted passwords were leaked, creating one of the biggest crossword puzzles of all time. It didn't take long for people to start trying to crack it, and within no time at all, a list of the 100 most commonly used passwords were released. Of the 150 million leaked passwords, 1.9 million were "123456", 450 thousand were "123456789" and 350 thousand the famous "password". In total, 5.96 million of the passwords leaked were in this top 100 list. About 4%. Now, if people are doing this with their online accounts, what about their computer passwords? Company email credentials? Intranet login details? Accounting software logins... It doesn't take much for an attacker to test 100 common passwords against a few hundred employees. How long will it be until they find a match, and compromise your systems? Not long. What's an organisation to do about it, though? Weak passwords are a lot like the flu of information security. A persistent problem that we don't seem to be very good at solving. Lots of promising options have so far been slow to replace passwords, but there are a few reasonable options available to organisations.
1.      Single Sign-on
Single sign-on is all about reducing the number of places your employees need to login. Combining systems so that one remembered password is enough. This means that all employees can use one secure password for their single sign-on login, and not have to worry about any others, resulting in more secure password choices. The great thing about single sign-on is that it also simultaneously improves productivity. Employees spend less time trying to remember usernames, passwords, and phoning up IT, and more time doing their job. Of course, single sign-on isn't without its risks. If an employee's main password is compromised, all of the systems they can access is compromised. This means that educating employees on secure password best practices is vital.
2.      Biometrics
Biometrics are taking off slowly, but offer an excellent opportunity for organisations to eliminate passwords altogether. There are still issues, for example Lenovo's ThinkPads had fingerprint scanners for authentication that were great for a while, but once the sensors got dirty it took countless swipes to gain access, and a whole load of user frustration. That's far from perfect. One promising area in biometrics are voice recognition tools. There's some impressive technology around like Nuance's voice biometrics solution that allows employees to authenticate themselves with their voice.

3.      Bringing it Together With Two-Factor Authentication
Perhaps the most favored way to improve password security is to combine more than one authentication method. If you're going to use single sign-on with a password, combine it with a second method of authentication. For example, when someone signs-in, send a text message to their mobile phone with a unique number they need to input to login for that particular session. Another two-factor option available is to combine a single sign-on password with biometrics. How about having users use voice authentication in addition to their password? Two-factor authentication makes life much harder for attackers. It's a much bigger challenge to acquire both someone's password, and full access to their mobile phone, or a password and their voice for authentication. So don't let password security get swept under the mat. Think about how your company manages employee passwords, and what can be done to improve the situation. It's too big of an issue to be ignored.

Mr. Manoj Kumar
Assistant Professor
Computer Science Engineering

Bharatmala Project

Bharatmala will provide NH linkage to 550 districts. Highways works worth Rs 8 lakh crore are scheduled to begin before the end of 2018 under the Bharatmala Pariyojana according to an announcement by the Minister of Road Transport and Highways, Shipping, Water Resources, River Development Gangaram Rejuvenation recently. Bharatmala is a new umbrella programme for the highways sector that focuses on optimizing efficiency of road traffic movement across the country by bridging critical infrastructure gaps.Bharatmala will be a major drive for economic growth in the country, and help realise the Prime Minister's vision of a New India. The programme has been designed to bridge the gaps in the existing highways infrastructure so as to make the movement of man and material more efficient. Special attention has been paid to fulfill the connectivity needs of backward and tribal areas, areas of economic activity, places of religious and tourist interest, border areas, coastal areas and trade routes with neighbouring countries under the programme. 
Bharatmala will give the country 50 national corridors as opposed to the 6 at present. With this, 70-80 percent of freight will move along NH as against the 40 percent at present. The programme will help to connect 550 Districts in the country through NH linkages. Currently, only around 300 Districts have NH linkages. Bharatmala will also have a positive impact on the Logistic Performance Index(LPI) of the country. Apart from this, the Minister said the programme will also help generate a large number of direct and indirect employment in the construction activity, the development of highways amenities and also as part of the enhanced economic activity in different parts of the country that will result from better road connectivity. 
A total of around 24,800 kms are being considered in Phase 1 of Bharatmala. In addition, Bharatmala Pariyojana phase - 1 also includes 10,000 kms of balance road under NHDP, taking the total to 34,800 kms at an estimated cost of Rs. 5,35,000 crore. Bharatmala Phase 1 is to be implemented over five years period,    i.e,2017-2018 to 2021-2022.Components of Phase 1 and estimated expenditure are as follows. 
Bharatmala envisages improving the efficiency of the National Corridors(golden - quadrilateral and NS -  EW corridor) by decongesting it's choke points through lane expansion, construction of ring roads, by passes/ elevated corridors and logistics parks at identified points. Around 5000 kms of the National Corridor will be taken up in Phase 1 of Bharatmala at an estimated cost of Rs. 1 lakh crore. 
The programme has Identified around 26,200 kms of economic corridors or roots that have heavy freight traffic, of which 9000 kms are being taken up for development in phase - 1 at an estimated cost of Rs. 1,20,000 crore. It is planned to develop these corridors end to end to ensure seamless and speedy travel and uniformity in standards. Besides this, around 8,000 kms of Inter-Corridors and around 7,500 km of Feeder Corridors have also been identified under Bharatmala, of which around 6,000 km will be developed in Phase - 1 at an estimated cost of Rs. 80,000 crore. Stretches of roads connecting more than two corridors are classified as Inter- Corridors routes, while other routes connecting to 1 or 2 corridors are termed as Feeder-Corridors. These corridors will be developed so as to address the infrastructure asymmetry that exists at many places. 
Bharatmala also envisages building 3,300 kms of Border Roads of strategic importance along international boundaries and 2,000 km of International Connectivity roads to promote trade with Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Out of this around 2000 km will be taken up under Phase 1 at an estimated cost of Rs. 25,000 crore. 
In addition to the above, around 2100 km of coastal roads and 2,000 km of Port connectivity roads have been identified under Bharatmala of which  2,000 kms are being taken up under Phase 1 at an estimated cost of Rs. 20,000 crore. About 1900 km of stretches have been identified for development of green-field express highways of which around 800 kms will be taken up under Phase 1 of the programme at an estimated cost of 40,000 crore. The 10,000 km of balance road work under NHDP will be completed at a cost of Rs. 1,50,000 crore. 
In addition to Rs. 5,35,000 crore for Bharatmala Phase 1, there is a requirement of Rs. 1,57,324 crore for ongoing schemes like NH(O), SARDP-NE, EAP and LWE under implementation in the Highways Sector. Thus, the overall outlay for Bharatmala and all existing schemes put together will be Rs. 6,92,324 crore over a period of 5 years. 
Gross Budgetary Support for the Bharatmala programme and existing schemes from 2017-2018 to 2021-2022 will be restricted to Rs. 2,370,24 crore from Central Road Fund(CRF), Rs. 59,973 crore as Budgetary support, Rs. 34,000 crore from expected monetization through Tolling, Operation Maintenance And Transfer (TOT)  route and Rs. 46,048 crore collected as Toll - Permanent - Bridge - Fee - Fund( PBFF)  by NHAI. A total of around 600 projects have been identified across the components for Bharatmala. 


Tuesday, 6 February 2018


Employability skills can be understood as the transferable skills needed by an individual to make them ‘employable’. Along with good technical understanding and subject knowledge, employers often outline a set of skills that they want from an employee. The important issue is you have completed your degree, you have the technical skills associated with that role, but do you have the ‘soft skills' that can be transferred between different employment sectors and ensure you are successful at interview? These skills are what they believe will equip the employee to carry out their role to the best of their ability. Employability depends on your knowledge, skills and attitudes, how you use those assets, and how you present them to employers.
Some of the employability skills that employer seek these days are commitment towards organization and job, effective communication skills, Interpersonal skills, leadership qualities, right attitude towards the profession, integrity, decision-making, time management, etc. These days the youth is professionally qualified and may be having the best of educational qualifications and degrees but still he fails either during the selection process or in the beginning of his career. This creates a huge gap in the required talent and available talent.
India, being a voluminous country of 100 billion plus population boasts of a huge talent pool, but again the issue arises how many of them are actually employable, how many of them are able to face the adversities and stresses of job market, how many of them have the right attitude and time management skills to carry out the demands of the job
Today employers are seeking and are more concerned about hiring the candidates with right attitude. Many a times they are ready to compromise to some extent on the qualifications, but when it comes to employability skills they want the best and this is what creates a distinction between the success and failure.
In addition to this, employers are always on the look-out for multi-taskers. Candidates with the ability of multi-tasking are usually seen as smart and fast-paced performers. Although every employee can certainly have his core competency as a worker but if he is both able and willing to juggle more than one job roles at the same time, his perceived value in the employer’s estimation goes many notches up.
Adaptability is another key employability skill that new-age organisations are keen to see their employees equipped with. The working world is always in a state of flux. As the dynamics of the organisation change with the passage of time or because of changing external or internal environment, the employees are expected to realign themselves with the changing realities of the workplace. Those employees who find it difficult to be flexible in adjusting to change find themselves alienated and they ultimately become non-performers.
Another crucial component of the desirable skill-set of employees is their ability to unlearn and relearn. All employees who join an organisation come with their own educational and experiential mental baggage. A dynamic and forward-looking organisation will always expect its employees to shed this mental baagage as early as possible and reorient themselves according to the needs and requirements of the organisation. An employee is willing to abandon an old mindset and acquire a new one and also abandon his old skill-set and acquire a new one will always be seen as a high-value asset by the employer.
Last but not the least, all progressive and growing organisations want employees to take it forward on the trajectory of growth and development. An employee who is always forthcoming in taking up new challenges and responsibilities will always be sought after. The employer would always like the employees to be his partners in progress and not stumbling blocks. Therefore, a key employability skill here is the ability and willingness to be bold and adventurous in embracing new job challenges.

Dr Deepti Sinha
Associate Professor
JEMTEC-School of Law

Greater Noida

Monday, 5 February 2018

Dematerialisation and Rematerialisation of Securities in India with reference to the Depositories Act 1996

Before the enactment of Depositories Act, 1996, in Indian security market transaction of securities i.e. allotment of securities and transfer of securities was based on paper based ownership. Movement of securities was possible only in physical form which resulted in delay in settlement and transfer of securities.  Some time it led to bad delivery, theft, forgery etc.  As a result investor was deprived liquidity in security. It was a major drawback of the Indian Securities market.
To pave the way for smooth and free transfer of securities a law was needed for depositories. This Act was enacted to ensure the transferability of securities with speed, accuracy and security. It gives the option to an investor to choose holding of securities in physical form or hold the securities in a dematerialised from a depository.

Parties to Dematerialisation of Securities
Dematerialisation of Securities means conversion of physical securities certificates into digital form.Under the depository system depositories provide for maintenance of ownership records in a book entry form through Depositories Participants.To understand the process of Dematerialisation of Securities one should know  the meaning of Depositories, Depositories Participant, Issuer, Beneficial Owner, Registered Owner and their role under the depositories Act, 1996. A “depository” means a company formed and registered under the companies Act and approved by SEBI by getting a certificate of registration. A Depository provides services for recording of allotment of securities or transfer of ownership of securities in the record of a depository. Therefore a depository facilitates holding of securities in the electronic form and enables securities transactions to be processed by book entry form through Depositories participant. At present mainly two depositories NSDL, CSDL are working in India.
Depository participant means a person registered under SEBI Act as “Depository participant” (DPs) to act as representative or agent of depository system. DPs work as intermediary between Depository and Investor (Beneficial owner of securities). It maintains the investor’s securities account balance and intimate to him the status of his credit and debit of his securities. An Investor can open the accounts with one or more DPs when a person buys any securities which has depository node. The buyer will become owner of the said security in the depository within a day of settlement being completed. The buyer is not required to apply to the company for registering the security in his name.  According to SEBI guidelines Financial Institution, Bank Custodian, Stock Brokers etc. can become DP of depository.  First Largest DP in India is Stocking Holding Corporation of India Limited (SHCIL) registered with NSDL.
 Beneficial Owner” means a person whose name is recorded as such with a depository. “Issuer” means any person making an issue of securities. Generally a legal person or company issues the securities to generate fund from the public. Depository is registered in the record of issuer or company as “registered owner”.

Procedure of Dematerialisation of Securities
Every person subscribing to securities offered by an issuer shall have an option either to receive the security certificate or hold securities with a depository. Where a person opts to hold a security with a depository, the issuer shall intimate such depository the details of allotment of security and the depository, on receipt of such intimation, shall enter the name of the allottee in its record as beneficial owner of that security.  

For Dematerialisation of Securities, a depository shall enter into an agreement with one or more DPs as its agent.  Any Investor, who wishes to seek services of a depository, may enter into an agreement with any depository through a DP. Investor shall surrender the certificates of securities for dematerialisation of securities to issuer.  For this Investor shall submit dematerialisation Request Form (DRF) along with the certificate to DP. DP shall transmit DRF electronically to the Depository and send the physical DRF and securities certificates to Company (Issuer). Depository shall intimate the Company about such DRF. Company shall check the authenticity of request and confirm to Depository. Depository shall confirm dematerialisation of securities and request to DP to intimate the Investor. DP shall intimate that Investor’s account is credited with DP. DP shall send the statements of transaction to the investor. Every depository shall register the transfer of securities in the name of transferee on the intimation of DP.

Procedure of Rematerialisation of Securities
Rematerialisation of Securities means conversion of electronic shares into physical share certificate.If any beneficial owner does not want to continue with dematerialisation of securities or seeks to opt out of a depository he shall inform the DP accordingly. For Rematerialisation of Securitiesbeneficial owner shall submit Rematerialisation Request Form (RRF) to DP. DP shall intimate the Depository of such request electronically. Depository shall confirm the RRF to company (Issuer). Company shall update its account and print securities certificate and confirm depository. Depository shall update the account and send the details to DP. DP shall send the intimation to its client about rematerialsation of securities.  Company (issuer) shall dispatch the certificate to the holders thereof.

Advantage of Dematerialisation of Securities
Dematerialisation of Securities eliminates the risk of “bad delivery” means there will be no risk of stealing, risk of theft , risk of forgery, risk of duplicacy because it is in Dmat form, and very easy to debit and credit security. There is no risk or insecurity in holding the security.  Faster delivery, no need of stamp duty in digital form required. No transfer deed required- immediate and instant transfer of securities is possible. Faster credit of non-cash corporate benefit- e.g. bonus share etc. Reduction in high volume of paper documents, safe custody possible (no loss, no tear, no steal). All parties can enjoy the benefit of Dematerialisation of Securities.

As per Depositories Act after dematerialsation of securities, depository shall be registered owner only for the purpose of effecting transfer of ownership of security on behalf of a beneficial owner. Depository will not have any voting right of shareholder or member of a company in respect of securities held by it. Only beneficial owner shall be entitled to all rights and benefits and be subject to liabilities in respect of securities held by a depository.

1.       The  Depositories Act, 1996
2.       The of SEBI Act, 1992
3.       The  SCR Act, 1956

Prof. (Dr.) Pallavi Gupta, Profeesor & Head, JEMTEC School of Law, Greater noida

Friday, 2 February 2018


Digitization of products and processes has changed consumer behaviour in several ways.  Changes  can  be  found  not  only  in  human  actions  but  also  in  attitudes  and  ethics.  The music industry has been a pioneer in digitized societies.  In the  new  millennium it has also faced the downsides of the development: digital piracy and, as  a  consequence  of  it,  declining  revenues. These  threats  are  not  limited  to  the  music  industry  but  concern  many  other  sectors  whose  products  can  be  digitized.  The mainstream of previous and contemporary IS/IT research has been optimistic and emphasized the positive impacts of digitalization. Those who have considered the negative impacts, such as the consequences of digital piracy, have done it from a single perspective, usually from the business perspective. A wide understanding of how digitalization takes place in societies is missing.  This research gap is addressed in our thesis. Although the focus is on consumer behaviour of  digital  contents, in general, and of digital music, in particular, the objective is to get a more comprehensive   understanding of digitized  societies.  

1.      Consumers now have their own benchmark of what “Looks Good”
With advent of Digital Marketing, the consumers are a troubled soul; they have different definition of “what Looks Good” to them. They will compare an FMCG product’s service with that of TV’s service. They expect one brand element to be equivalent to another brand’s element. There have been instances where people tweeted on FMCG companies’ handle on how let’s say Samsung has a better Quality of Service than what they provide. I mean these two products are far apart. But, consumer is King. So, now every company has to be on their toes now because, they are now competing with anyone and everyone on Social Media Space.
2. Consumer Tolerance is reducing at an alarming level
Consumer wants response as fast and as clear as possible. It takes merely one Viral tweet or post to destroy or build a company’s rapport. Platforms like, mouthshut, quora, twitter, facebook, etc. are being used by consumers to share their misfortunes that they had faced with a company. Negativity attracts people and this is human psychology. Very few users will put a grateful post on FB or Twitter. To tackle such situations, a brand must follow ORM strategy (Online Reputation Management). ORM is basically a management system where you respond to people who are talking about you. If they are talking good, then thank them and ask to visit your website. If they are talking negatively about you, ask them to chill and ask them to register a complaint on the helpdesk. Make sure that the helpdesk solves the problem because again the customer will go to Social Media, but now he/she would be even angrier! Such interactions create a positive impact on people.
3. Consumer Dialogue- Word of Mouth
Word of mouth is still one of the most effective marketing tools. Before Digital Marketing people used to ask elders, or people who have domain knowledge of the specific product they are about to buy. But, now the list has new entries like Rating, Reviews (User and Expert), Testimonials, etc. The decision of a consumer to buy a product, online or offline, they will first Google search it, and then they will go to review sites and read what experts and users have to say about the product.
4. People are not afraid of experimenting
Gone are those days when people are afraid of using a new product and would use it only when somebody else puts a trust deal on the product. Now, a new product with good features and quality is lauded with applause by our consumers. Best example can be Renault Duster car. This car became national sensation in a very brief period of time. It was also not backed up by a trusted brand like Maruti or TATA. Experimenting concept prevailed and due to which many companies like OYO, Uber, Ola, etc. came to life.
5. Consumers are now switchers instead of Loyal
Loyalty in consumers is now an extinct feature. There was a time when people in India just had a trust in one brand in mobile phone industry, NOKIA. Now, NOKIA is nowhere to be seen. Likes of MNCs like Samsung, Apple is now being threatened by new comers like Oppo, Xiaomi, Gionee, One+, etc. Flash sales and people getting mad over these low cost ultra-features phones. Another close to home example is Patanjali, Baba Ramdev initiative. Patanjali has made MNC sweat. Colgate accepted that they have a new competitor in town. Patanjali as of now is a Rs. 5,000 crore company!
6. People use more than one Social Media channels now
It is not upto brands to decide which social media platform they want to be on. It is now decided by the consumers. If consumer is on FB, Twitter, Snapchat, Vine, G+, Tumblr, Instagram etc. brands have to be present there. They have to interact with people to create a buzz among them. Once a positive buzz is created, word of mouth spreads like fire.
It is an attempt to understand the behaviour of Consumer towards online shopping. The data analysis has given clear indication of increasing significance of online buying of the consumers. The ease and convenience of shopping and the discounts available has made shopping convenient for consumers buying online. The majority of consumers buying online are youngsters and the majority of goods and services demanded are laptops, mobile phones, electronic goods and booking of travelling tickets and hotels. The major fear in the consumer’s mind during online purchase is the difference between the product shown on website and the delivered one. By improving after sales service, providing more secured payment options, timely delivery of products can boost the online shopping of consumers.

Mudit Tomar
Assistant Professor

JEMTEC School of Law

Airborne Internet

Airborne Internet is a peer-to-peer aircraft communications network which is private, secure, and reliable and uses the same technology as the present day Internet. It  connects aircraft to a On ground Internet access node, including any information or data which is passed across this communication link.  It has several uses like    flight planning, en route reservations, travel arrangement and is also useful in providing the information about weather,  and for aircraft-to-aircraft communications. The security applications of Airborne Internet (A.I.) include flight tracking/deviation monitoring, in-flight video monitoring, cockpit voice/video recording.
A.I. began as an underlying technology for NASA’s Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) and now has found new uses in communication and transportation.
At present, three different companies are working on this technologyAngel Technologies is setting up an airborne Internet network, called  High Altitude Long Operation (HALO), which plans to use lightweight planes to circle overhead at an altitude of 52,000 to 69,000 feet (15,849 to 21,031 meters) and provide data delivery faster than a T1 line  .  At this height, the aircraft will remain undisturbed by inclement weather and commercial air traffic. AeroVironment is also planning to work on a idea of using a solar-powered, unmanned plane that would work like the HALO network, and Sky Station International is working on a similar venture using blimps instead of planes.
Deploying high-altitude aircraft will also have a cost advantage over current system of satellites   as they don't need to be launched into space.In addition, the airborne Internet will not replace the existing system of satellite and ground based internet but compliment these technologies This technology will  overcome the last-mile barriers facing conventional Internet access options to a large extent .

Mr.Krishan Kumar